Building Accountable LLMs with Knowledge Graphs

LLMs and knowledge graphs

Large language models (LLMs) have revolutionized the field of artificial intelligence, demonstrating remarkable capabilities in natural language processing and generation. However, these powerful models can be further enhanced by integrating them with structured knowledge sources, such as knowledge graphs. In this guide, we’ll explore how to build contextual LLMs using knowledge graphs, delving into their functionality, benefits, and best practices for implementation.

What are Contextual LLMs with Knowledge Graphs?

Contextual LLMs are AI models that combine the generative capabilities of large language models with the structured knowledge and reasoning power of knowledge graphs. By integrating LLMs with knowledge graphs, these hybrid models can generate responses that are not only fluent and coherent, but also grounded in relevant, verified facts and relationships.

The knowledge graph serves as an external source of contextual information, providing the LLM with a deeper understanding of the domain, entities, and their interconnections. This synergy allows the LLM to generate more accurate, informed, and relevant responses, addressing some of the key challenges faced by standalone language models.

Why are Contextual LLMs with Knowledge Graphs Important?

Contextual LLMs with knowledge graphs address several critical limitations of standalone LLMs:

  1. Knowledge Gaps: LLMs are constrained by the data used during their training. Knowledge graphs provide access to external, up-to-date information, filling these knowledge gaps.
  2. Factual Accuracy: LLMs can sometimes generate factually inaccurate responses. By leveraging the verified facts and relationships in the knowledge graph, contextual LLMs can produce more reliable and trustworthy outputs.
  3. Contextual Awareness: LLMs often lack the necessary domain-specific context to provide meaningful and relevant responses. Knowledge graphs improve the contextual understanding of the LLM, leading to more informed and relevant outputs.
  4. Transparency and Auditability: Contextual LLMs can cite the knowledge graph sources used in their responses, enhancing the transparency and auditability of the AI-generated content.

“The misconception that flooding LLMs with information will magically solve problems overlooks a key fact: human knowledge is about context, not just content. Similar to the brain, ‘meaning’ emerges from the interplay between information and the unique context of each individual.

Businesses must shift from one-size fits all LLMs and focus on structuring data to enable LLMs to provide contextually relevant results for effective outcomes” – Mo Salinas, Data Scientist at Valkyrie Intelligence

How Contextual LLMs with Knowledge Graphs Work

Contextual LLMs with knowledge graphs operate in a two-stage process:

  1. Retrieval Phase: The model retrieves the most relevant facts, entities, and relationships from the knowledge graph based on the user’s input or query.
  2. Generation Phase: The LLM component uses the retrieved contextual information from the knowledge graph to generate a response that is grounded in the relevant knowledge.

synthesizing the KG as a retriever with LLMs

The knowledge graph database plays a crucial role in this architecture, providing a structured and optimized storage system for the domain-specific knowledge. Efficient retrieval algorithms and embedding models are used to quickly identify the most relevant information from the knowledge graph and provide it as input to the LLM.Traditional context retrieval relies on vector similarity search, a method which fails to capture the complexity of knowledge context. Knowledge Graphs provide explicit structure to knowledge context, creating more optimal search and retrieval.

Benefits of Contextual LLMs with Knowledge Graphs

Integrating LLMs with knowledge graphs offers several key advantages:

  1. Improved Accuracy and Relevance: Contextual LLMs can generate responses that are more accurate, informative, and tailored to the user’s needs.
  2. Enhanced Transparency and Auditability: By citing knowledge graph sources, the reasoning behind the LLM’s outputs can be clearly understood and verified.
  3. Cost-effective Training: Contextual LLMs require less computational power and data compared to extensive fine-tuning or training of standalone LLMs.
  4. Scalability and Flexibility: Contextual LLMs can handle large datasets and complex queries, surpassing the limitations of conventional LLMs.
  5. Broader Application Domains: The knowledge graph can provide contextual information across various industries and use cases, expanding the applicability of the LLM.

Architectural Considerations

Building effective contextual LLMs with knowledge graphs requires a well-designed architecture that seamlessly integrates the key components:

  1. Knowledge Graph Database: A scalable, high-performance database optimized for storing and querying structured knowledge.
  2. Retrieval Algorithms: Models that can efficiently search the knowledge graph and retrieve the most relevant facts and relationships.
  3. LLM Generator: The large language model responsible for generating the final output, leveraging the retrieved contextual information.
  4. Prompt Engineering: Techniques for crafting prompts that effectively bridge the LLM and the knowledge graph, guiding the model to generate coherent and relevant responses.

Ensuring smooth interoperability and efficient data flow between these components is crucial for building a robust and effective contextual LLM system.

Contextual LLMs and Knowledge Graphs | data landscape

Choosing the Right Approach: Contextual LLMs vs. Fine-Tuning

The decision to use a contextual LLM with a knowledge graph or a fine-tuned LLM depends on the specific requirements of the use case:

  1.  Contextual LLMs with Knowledge Graphs: Ideal for scenarios that require real-time data relevance, flexibility, and the ability to handle dynamic datasets, such as interactive customer support, data exploration, or question-answering applications.Fine-tuning of LLMs introduces inherent security risks, with many researchers uncovering model training data through black-box attacks. These same security risks are not present in Contextual LLMs which which are given secure instanced information.
  2. Fine-Tuning: Better suited for use cases where the data is more stable and specialized, and where granular control and performance optimization are more important, such as in legal or financial document processing.

In some cases, a hybrid approach that leverages the strengths of both techniques can provide a comprehensive solution for advanced Generative AI applications.


Contextual LLMs with knowledge graphs represent a significant advancement in the field of artificial intelligence, empowering language models with structured knowledge and reasoning capabilities. By integrating LLMs with knowledge graphs, businesses and developers can build AI systems that generate responses that are not only fluent and coherent but also grounded in relevant, verified facts and relationships. This approach offers enhanced accuracy, transparency, and flexibility, positioning organizations at the forefront of AI-driven innovation.

To learn more about how our game-changing approach can help elevate your organization, Schedule a Call with one of the data experts on our team.

About Valkyrie and the AI We Build

Valkyrie is an applied science firm that builds industry-defining AI and ML models through our services, product, impact, and investment arms. We specialize in taking the latest advancements in AI research and applying it to solve our client’s challenges through model development or product deployment. Our work can be found across industry from SiriusXM, Activision, Chubb Insurance, and the Department of Defense, to name a few.

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